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How alcohol can affect the development of colorectal cancer


While heavy alcohol consumption is recognised as a contributor to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), an increasing number of studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may not have an adverse effect on the risk of CRC, or even decrease the risk.

A recent study, comprising a meta-analysis of 16 studies into the relation of alcohol consumption to invasive CRC, was conducted by leading investigators in the field. ISFAR members consider this to be a well-done study, with a large number of subjects, the ability to use individual level data in their meta-analysis, and the use of appropriate and complete analytic techniques.

The key finding of their study was that there was a J-shaped curve evident in all of their analytic approaches; their results strongly support a J-shaped association for the relation of alcohol intake to CRC; a slightly lower risk of cancer for light- to moderate-drinkers and an increased risk for subjects reporting an average of three or more drinks per day. Further, they found that their results did not vary by age, obesity, smoking or family history of CRC.

Overall, the effects of benefits/harms were somewhat more striking for cancers in the distal colon than in the proximal colon.

Potential mechanisms for heavy alcohol consumption being related to an increase in risk were discussed by the authors. As for moderate drinking decreasing the risk, potential mechanisms have been considered by an ISFAR member. He describes active, beverage-specific metabolites other than ethanol that reach the intestine. In particular, our attention goes to the several microbial catabolites that can be formed via our host microbiota in the colon.

The finding of a J-shaped curve between alcohol and CRC is similar to the relation seen for a number of other diseases, including coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, dementia and total mortality. While a linear relation between heavy drinking and certain upper aero-digestive tract cancers has been shown, for certain cancers there may be a J-shaped curve of effect, with reductions in risk for light-to-moderate drinkers.

Read more here.

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What can cause abdominal pain and constipation?


Abdominal pain is a common symptom of constipation, so they often occur together. There are many reasons why people experience abdominal pain and constipation, ranging from certain lifestyle factors to severe medical conditions.

Constipation is a widespread condition that can affect people of any age. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), around 16 out of 100 adults in the United States experience symptoms of constipation.

In this article, we list the symptoms of constipation and abdominal pain and explore some potential causes. We also look at when to see a doctor and treatment options.

Symptoms of constipation

The NIDDK define constipation as having fewer than three bowel movements a week.

Other symptoms of constipation include:

abdominal pain
difficulty or pain when passing stools
hard, dry, or lumpy stools
the sensation that the bowel is not empty after having a bowel movement

Click here to read more.

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Bowel cancer rates rising 'among young adults'


More young people under 50 are being diagnosed with bowel cancer, two studies of the disease in European and high-income countries have found.

Although total numbers of cases in young people remain low, the studies highlighted a sharp rise in rates in 20 to 29-year-olds.

Researchers are not clear why this is happening, but say obesity and poor diet could be factors.

Experts urged doctors not to ignore symptoms in young people.

In most of Europe, bowel cancer screening programmes start at the age of 50 because cases of the disease are much higher among this older age group.

As a result, countries with established programmes, like the UK, have seen bowel cancer rates in the over-50s fall.

But recent research suggests rates are now rising more steeply among under-50s - and there have been calls for screening to start at 45 instead, in the US particularly.

Sharp rise in young

In a study in the journal Gut, Dutch researchers analysed trends in 20 European countries, including the UK, Germany, Sweden and France, using data from more than 143 million people.

They found a rise in cases of bowel cancer between 1990 and 2016 in most countries - with the most significant increase among people in their 20s.

For them, bowel cancer incidence increased from 0.8 to 2.3 cases per 100,000 people over 26 years - with the sharpest rise in rates, of 7.9% per year, occurring between 2004 and 2016.

But there was no increase in deaths from bowel cancer for this age group, the study found.

Among people in their 30s, rates of bowel cancer also rose - but less steeply - and among 40-somethings rates fluctuated.

The researchers, from the Erasmus MC University Medical Center in Rotterdam, said if the trend continued, screening guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

Family history

Another study, in the Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, appeared to confirm the trend among young adults in high-income countries, including the UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

It found a 1.8% increase in colon cancer cases and 1.4% rise in rectal cancer cases in people under 50 in the UK between 1995 and 2014 .

Over the same period, there were decreases in bowel cancer cases of 1.2% in the over-50s.

The findings were similar in many of the countries studied.

Click here to continue reading this article sourced from BBC UK.


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Event report from Ed Goodall


Event Report: How is research in Ireland addressing the challenges of bowel cancer?

Professor Annette Byrne, Head of the Royal College of Surgeons Ireland (RSCI) Precision Cancer Medicine Group and Coordinator of the EC funded multi-million Euro Colorectal Cancer Research Programme COLOSSUS hosted and chaired an event at RCSI on the 30th April 2019 in Dublin.   The meeting provided a fitting finale to Bowel Cancer Awareness Month throughout Europe.  She welcomed a packed audience and introduced three keynote speakers.

Dr Sandra Van Schaeybroeck from Queen’s University, Belfast, the Coordinator of the MErCuRIC Project, gave a comprehensive and enthralling lecture which summarised the aetiology of bowel cancer and provided current statistics on its prevalence in Europe and throughout the world.  She elaborated on current treatment options and new clinical approaches to the four stages of the disease.  The importance of early screening was emphasised given the lower survival rates from the more advanced stages, particularly Stage 4 where the cancer has spread to major organs such as the liver.  For example, 6 out of 10 colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women over 50 years of age were screened routinely using the newest techniques.  Additionally, the removal of precancerous polyps reduced the probability of contracting colon cancer by 70%.

A major research challenge internationally has been to improve the survival outcome of stage 4 patients with genetic aberrations in KRAS/BRAF genes.  These patients are often resistant to historical chemotherapy options.  The MErCuRIC study, a major European collaboration between several countries, including the UK, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, Czech Republic and Ireland, is investigating a unique combination therapy of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in order to treat patients with the above aberrations.  The project is now in Phase 2 and 82 patients have been recruited.

The next speaker, Dr Ian Miller (RCSI), delineated exciting new research work in their laboratories where there has been a particular focus on new developments in the search for more sensitive and specific biomarkers in order to predict particular types of colorectal cancer.  This lecture complemented the work of the previous speaker in stressing the importance of more precise identification of biomarkers which had the potential to pinpoint more effective therapies for the treatment and control of bowel cancer.

The final speaker, Dr Orla Casey (Cancer Trials Ireland), detailed the comprehensive programme of research which they had supported in recent years.  Additional to a large number of major clinical trials, there had been considerable effort expended on translational studies typified, for example, by the COLOSSUS study outlined by the Chairperson, Professor Annette Byrne, at the beginning of the session.  Biobank studies were continuing to prove of extreme value in making the most effective and efficient use of large datasets that were already available from patients.

The event, organised by Danielle Nicholson of Pintail Limited with assistance from Dr Alice O’Farrell (RCSI), was a major success and captivated a very attentive audience of health professionals and patients.  Dr Ed Goodall of Digestive Cancers Europe (DiCE) and the Northern Ireland Cancer Research Forum (NICRF) Patient Advocacy Representative commented, ‘The event did indeed provide a fitting finale to Bowel Cancer Awareness Month.  For Health Authorities the message was clear and explicit.  Instigate screening programmes for all male and females over 50 years of age and back them up with comprehensive awareness campaigns for potential patients.  Secondly, support the exciting research being conducted in our major universities prevent, diagnose and treat more effectively the various types and stages of colorectal cancer’.

COLOSSUS has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No.754923. MErCuRIC is funded by the European Community’s Framework Seven (FP7) under contract #602901. The materials presented and views expressed are the responsibility of the authors only. The EU Commission takes no responsibility for any use of the information set out.

Click here to read the full report from Colossus.


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Success of ECCAM! The Full Report...


In March 2019 Digestive Cancers Europe launched a campaign to promote colorectal cancer screening at the occasion of the start of European Colon Cancer Awareness Month (ECCAM).

The Campaign has been a huge success and we have the full report breakdown to share with you - Click here to read the 2019 Full Report

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Gene Linked to CRC in Younger Patients Identified


MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Valentine N. Nfonsam, MD, MS, FACS
Associate Professor of Surgery
Program Director, General Surgery Residency
Colon and Rectal Surgery
Division of Surgical Oncology
University of Arizona, Tucson

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The overall incidence of colon cancer in the United states has gone down in the last few decades. However, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of sporadic colon cancer is young patients (
These young patients do present with more advanced disease and with aggressive features. We demonstrated in our study that the colon cancer tumor biology was different between young and older patients. We also singled out a particular gene, Cartilage oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) which was significantly over-expressed in young patients and demonstrated its role in cancer proliferation and metastasis and also its potential as a prognostic biomarker since we were able to detect it in plasma.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: There is increasing incidence of colon cancer in young patients and the reason is likely multi-factorial. The biology of the tumors in younger patients is different and specific genes like COMP plays a role in carcinogenesis.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: We will like to further evaluate the role of COMP as a prognostic biomarker and also further elucidate its role in carcinogenesis.

Study was funded by SAGES grant.

Citation:

Increasing Incidence of Colon Cancer in the Young: Assessing the Tumor Biology
Nfonsam, Valentine N. et al.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons , Volume 0 , Issue 0

https://www.journalacs.org/article/S1072-7515(19)30257-1/fulltext

Click here to read the original article sourced from MedicalResearch.com

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EuropaColon Italia is now on the Web!


Our Member group EuropaColon Italia is now on the Web!

Visit their website: www.europacolon.it

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Hours of TV Raises Risk of CRC in Young People


Sitting and watching TV and other sedentary behavior for more than two hours a day significantly increases the risk of contracting colorectal cancer among people under the age of 50.

According to the Nurses’ Health Study II of nearly 90,000 American nurses aged 25 to 42 when recruited for the study and followed up for two decades.

The risk is not increased by just sitting at the dinner table or reading a book, but by sedentary time resulting from passive media consumption on TV and the social media and the lack of vigorous physical activity.

Sedentary behavior, according to the study, involves the development of several chronic health outcomes, including cancer of the colon and rectum, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular. The very large, long-term prospective study was conducted by researchers at Harvard University in Massachusetts and and Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis, Missouri. It was published in the Cancer Spectrum of the Journal of the [US] National Cancer Institute.

The researchers said that although rates of colorectal cancer in the older US population – as well as in parts of Europe and Asia – has decreased in recent years due to colonoscopy screening and better diet, they have “increased dramatically in those ages 20 to 49 in the US.

In younger people, this type of often-fatal cancer is typically diagnosed at a more advanced stage and with more aggressive tumors. As a result, the American Cancer Society now advises that people who have no family or personal history of the malignancy should be screened from the age of 45 instead of 50, which was the previous policy.

The nurses were asked to complete questionnaires at baseline and again every two years. The questionnaires included questions about their medical condition and health, physical data such as a body mass index and lifestyle-related risk factors or prevention, such as smoking, physical activity, diet, and overall caloric intake.

In addition, the participants were asked to list in the questionnaires information and data about their behavior, such as standing or walking around the house or in the workplace, and especially watching TV, measured in the range of seven to 14 hours per week (one or two hours a day). During follow-up of 22 years during, 118 nurses developed colorectal cancer before the age of 50. Associated with an increased risk factor for illness were prolonged TV viewing and video content viewing on social networks.

The researchers found that sighted television had an increased and dramatic effect on the risk of colorectal cancer in women under the age of 50. The conclusion was particularly pronounced among women who participated in the study and were overweight and obese who had little physical activity and had a history of smoking.

The researchers found that one to two hours of daily TV or video watching on the computer was associated with a 12-percent increase in the risk of colon cancer compared to women who watched less than an hour of the day. The risk of getting sick increased significantly in women who watched more than two hours a day and stood at 69% more than women who watched less than an hour a day. In addition, women who watched more than two hours a day increased their risk of developing rectal cancer by 2.44 times more than women who watched less than an hour a day.

“These findings provide further and dramatic proof of the great importance of adopting a healthy and active lifestyle to reduce the risk of cancer,” the researchers wrote.

Click here to continue reading this article sourced from BreakingIsraelNews.com

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Eurordis launches Rare Barometer


EURORDIS, through its Rare Barometer programme, has launched a new survey on rare diseases/ rare cancers patients’ experience of treatment. The purpose is to highlight unmet treatment needs.

Yes, it is another survey…! However, the results of the survey can be very useful for the advocacy work we do in the field of rare cancers and would complement other survey’s results you may have carried out for your rare cancer.

We have a team of professional researchers, specialised in surveys, who shall be able to conduct a thorough analysis of the responses received.

The survey is available in 23 languages and is intended for patients, their family members and carers. All responses are anonymous and will be kept in secure storage only accessible to our research team.

The survey shall take about 10 minutes to complete: Click here to take the survey.

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Take the Interactive DiCE Symptom Checker


Digestive Cancers Europe has created an online interactive colorectal cancer symptom checker!

Using a traffic light system to pinpoint warning signs, this tool was created for European Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month 2019.

Click here to use and share the DiCE Symptom Checker.

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Digestive Cancers Europe vzw/asbl
Terrestlaan 30
3090 Overijse
Belgium
Tel: Phone : +44 0)1722 333 587
info@digestivecancers.eu


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